In some cases, the Executive Directors of some types of foundations may be expected to hold a PhD[ citation needed ] A PhD is sometimes felt to be a necessary qualification in certain areas of employment, such as in foreign policy think-tanks: Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities.
There were similar developments in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries e.
To this day this is also still the case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: Terminology[ edit ] The degree is abbreviated PhD sometimes Ph. A candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context.
While this is a small return to the individual or even an overall deficit when tuition and lost earnings during training are accounted forhe claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training. Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set curriculum, based upon the trivium and the quadriviumby the 19th century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now commonly referred to as sciences and humanities.
Some universities in the non- English -speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the anglophone Ph. The University of London introduced the DSc inbut as an advanced study course, following on directly from the BSc, rather than a research degree.
A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though, in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, sincethe EngD.
According to Keith Allan Noblethe first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component.
To counter this problem, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. D, Doctorate or similar terms. The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research.
Until the midth century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges.
It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students. These were, however, very advanced degrees, rather than research-training degrees at the PhD level— Harold Jeffreys said that getting a Cambridge ScD was "more or less equivalent to being proposed for the Royal Society".
The PhD degree and similar awards spread across Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The degree was introduced in France inreplacing diplomas as the highest academic degree; into Russia inwhen the Doktor Nauk degree, roughly equivalent to a PhD, gradually started replacing the specialist diplomaroughly equivalent to the MA, as the highest academic degree; and in Italy inwhen PhDs gradually started replacing the Laurea as the highest academic degree.
According to the article, only the fastest developing countries e.ON THE FIDELITY OF SOFTW ARE b y Stephen J Counsell a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements f or the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the UNIVERSITY OF.
Thesis submitted for the degree of. Doctor of Philosophy. at the University of Leicester. by. Hallat Rajab Ebrahim, BA, MA.
School of English. University of Leicester. Narrative analysis of the oral stories of personal experience told by Iraqi Kurdish and white British English-speaking women. Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Radina Hadgiivanova Submitted to the senate of Tel Aviv Univeristy The second part of the thesis regards the kinetics of nucleation and growth of the spherical micelles in diﬀerent experimentally relevant scenarios (e.g., a concentration.
Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester by Michael Gordon Abbott BA (Cambridge) Department of Computer Science. A thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Janet Carroll University of Canberra i The journey of a thesis is one of endurance, sacrifice, patience and creativity, not only for the and support and for modelling for me the never-give-up-do-your-best philosophy that enabled.
A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy basis to form the best practice framework presented in this thesis.
The framework was Esther Cheung and Albert P.C. Chan. Suitability of Procuring Large Public Works by Public Private Partnership (PPP) - A Case Study of the Kai Tak Cruise.Download